You would have to advertise your routes over BGP, this is the only way on-prem would learn AWS VPC CIDR (subnet) and it's also the only way that AWS Direct Connect endpoint will learn on-prem CIDR.
As for your second question, the size of AWS network make BGP is a must to make all the traffic engineering possible.
100% agree with the answer from Matt_E but there is a slight wrinkle here.
Because you're using a Direct Connect hosted connection (which means that a Direct Connect partner is providing the connectivity between your network and the AWS network) they are the ones who must use BGP.
Where they connect to you, they (and you) can choose to use whatever routing protocol works for both of you. Normally (in about 100% of the cases that I've seen) that is also BGP. But you might ask them what else they support. It is highly unlikely that they will support static routing but you can always ask.
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