Yes there is a way to do what you want to do but it would be done in multiple steps.
Step 1: Update your template you have shown above to be JUST the S3 Bucket and no other resources in the stack. Create a new Stack using this template using the Import option.
The result of step 1 will be a Stack that has a single resource which is an imported resource of the existing S3 bucket
Step 2: Replace the resources back into the template that you removed in Step 1 and then perform a Stack Update on your existing stack (not an import)
This will add the new resources (the Lambda function) to the stack and after the update is complete you should have the situation you wanted from the start.
I hope this helps and makes sense.
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