OpenSearch throttles by default when the respective threadpool queues are full. High threadpool queues indicate the that the incoming request rate is greater than what the cluster is provisioned to handle.
If you're going beyond this, you would have to setup a feedback mechanism by considering metrics such as
JVMMemoryPressure, etc. You can set a CloudWatch alarm over the metrics to notify you via SNS as well as configure SNS to invoke a Lambda function to reduce the rate on the client side as required.
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