As of today, it's not possible to train a machine learning model with SageMaker using a reserved instance that is already up and running instead of provisioning a new instance. The service team is currently working on it, unfortunately I don't have an ETA as to when the feature will be released.
Local Mode is supported for frameworks images (TensorFlow, MXNet, Chainer, PyTorch, and Scikit-Learn) and images you supply yourself.
If you want to train Built-in algorithm models simply faster, you should check the recommendation in the SageMaker document.
If the algorithm supports it, one can also try using Pipe mode or FastFile mode. These offer some fast training job startup time. Accelerate-model-training-using-faster-pipe-mode-on-amazon-sagemaker
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